Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Digital Technology For Literacy Practices For Children

Question: What is the positive and negative effects of using digital technology for literacy practices for children? Answer: Introduction According to Hrd Jamison (2013), the use of technology in literary practices was prominent in the late 20th century. The advent of printing press, integrated circuits and handheld electronic calculator depicted a significant improvement in terms of technology. The technology shares an interlinking relationship with the digital technology. By the late 1950s it became quite evident that in order to bring about further improvement in the analogue mechanisms for literacy practices, digital technology played a crucial role. In the year 1973 the world witnessed fist electronic digital computer. It changed the digital technology to great extent and the usage of analogue technology got experienced a paradigm shift in terms to speed, reliability and accuracy. The global revolution in digital technology and literacy practices was an outcome invention of microprocessors in the year 1996. The internet was first introduced in the 1983 and it completely revolutionized the process of information a vailability. It is important to mention the importance of internet technology and how it facilitated seamless integration of educational practices with digital technology (Crowley Heyer, 2015). According to Ager (2013), Information and communications technology (ICT) has a crucial role in amalgamation of internet through digital devices such as radio, cellular smartphones, software applications, computers etc. In the year 1998 Larry Page along with Sergey Brin founded Google which laid a prime focus on availability of accurate information tracking through internet. Due to this the researcher often refers the present generation as the Google generation (Buckingham, 2013). The digital technology is not just influential through internet but television also has a significant impact on the changing trends of digital technology. Research suggests that new technology should be available to the children in the early development process. Various studies have shown that the incorporation of digital texts among children shows increased playfulness and inculcates creative skills (Marsh et al., 2015). According to Fitzgerald et al., (2014) various studies have also shown how the computer games can influence the learning practices at early stage of childhood. The digital cable operators in the recent times have incorporated various learning packages for a child in their connection facility includes many learning aids for the children of the present generation. In order to address the various digital literacy skills of the learners the innovation in form of various pedagogy, instructors have to be aware of conveniently adopt the dichotomized modes of thinking and building on the binary logic of the individuals. The digital technology has further shown various improvements not just in terms of various digital devices but also in forms of videos, eBooks, portable digital formats of the books and even social media and blogs. According to many researchers the digital text introduced in forms of eBooks have completely replaced the use of text books among many communities of young people (Tyner, 2014). General Discussion The positive impact of the various digital technologies takes into account aspects such as accurate information, accessibility, convenience and sharing of the information. It has supplemented in teaching tools through interactive tools in educational process such as presentation tools, video files and many audio visual elements into the learning process. Research shows the various digital aids such as hands-on learning tools including ipads, tablets, notebooks and Smartphone suggests that students are better motivating in learning than the traditional learning procedures. The various new leaning measures have enabled the children to acces the information on the go thus the advancement in the technology has enabled greater mobility of the information. The main impact of digital technology for learning practices is for the accuracy and speed of access of the required material. The online learning process enables the students to learn from tutors who interact with the children through o nline video class. YouTube and Google Hangouts in air make the entire process of e- learning seamless and inexpensive (Davidson et al., 2014). Flewitt et al., (2014), the main advantage of online learning is that the students can learn at their own speed. In online classroom session the students enjoy the flexibility of completing the assignments at their convenience. The benefits are not only in terms of the learners but with the advent of the digital technology the tutors are able take classes according to their convenience and even the students are unable to attend the class the information can stored in various online clouds. The storage of information can be done by use of drop box applications, Google Drive and cloud storage facilities offered by Western Digital, HP, Dell etc (Gillen Hall, 2013) Coiro et al., (2014), the researchers have often suggested that the children often inculcate the competitive skills while they playing games with their friends or relatives. Studies have suggested that the competitive skills from the video games help the children to cope up with competition in the practical situation. In several TV connection facilities the games are so interactive that they help the children to learn various language, gain mathematical skills and analytical reasoning at a very early stage which will help them to deal with various complex situation in the real world. The eBooks have changed the learning process in great way by ease of accessibility. The eBooks have also changed the market scenario and market players like Amazon Kindle which is used by a large population of the students in the United States. The digital technology is not only prominent in terms of reading digital text but also writing of the same. The digital pen is an input device which recognizes th e handwriting of the children and converts the analogue information into digital. The digital pen is used by several students for taking classroom notes and saving the same in electronic format. The technology used for digital pen is known as Optical character recognition (OCR) technology. Manufacturers such as Polyvision, N-trig, Wacom and live scribe have made the pen widely popular in the present. The various digital technologies used by social media such as Whatsapp and Google hangout. At times useful educational information is available on facebook and social media platforms like this can integrate information into a single page which can be accessed from mobiles devices. The various negative impacts of the digital technology have brought serious concern for health problems among the children. The surveys conducted in the recent times shows that due to increase in the use of digital devices such as ipad, laptops, Smartphone and notebooks the young generation is suffering from health issues such as weak eyesight and back pain. The digital technology has created a negative impact on the children to pursue physical sports and due to lack of physical activities many children are suffer from overweight and fitness issues. The digital technology is often seen as a developing platform for many poor and developing nations and they are unable to take full use of this technology. The technology in form of internet is often inaccessible in many parts of the world and needs additional attention for a global connectivity. The negative impact is also seen on the writing skills of the children, with the use of technologies like swipe texting, keyboards and even spee ch recognition software to input text has detrimental effect on the students as they dont have to write anything on paper directly. The aforementioned technologies also have a detrimental impact on the grammar. Research has shown that while texting, type or taking of classroom notes in form digital format most student dont care about punctuation and spelling. This leads to bad habit later in life. The gadgets used for e learning in many forms prove to be expensive for some section of the society and affordability. The survey conducted on the use of Smartphone shows that the children are often affected due to radio frequency emitted from the Smartphones is harmful especially on skin. It is even considered to having serious issues relating to cancer among the children. The use of various digital technologies have proved to cause social detachment and contributing time to relatives towards family. Many children often suffer from the problem of interacting in real life as they become so caught up with the use of mobile gadgets. Many researchers consider the major problem of the growth of digital technology is seen among children for getting involved in unethical practices, such as children using it as a source of adult content rather than using it for learning purposes. This type of problems is definite to create a negative impact on the character of the involved individual. (Flood et al., 2015). Conclusion The topic of discussion in the essay gives an extensive viewpoint of the several aspects of the digital technology on the children of present generation. Among the various types of positive and negative influence of digital technology it needs to noted that the use of digital technologies are at a developing stage among various countries and needs several improvement for proper implementation so that the benefits can be reaped in the long- run. The government authorities of these developing nations are taking several initiatives to inculcate the use of digital technology among the children by introduction of laptops in primary schools and educational centers for a global inclusion of the literacy service by digital platform. Reference List Ager, R. (2013). Art of Information of Communications Technology for Teachers. Routledge. Buckingham, D. (2013). Beyond technology: Children's learning in the age of digital culture. John Wiley Sons. Coiro, J., Knobel, M., Lankshear, C., Leu, D. J. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of research on new literacies. Routledge. Crowley, D., Heyer, P. (2015). Communication in history: Technology, culture, society. Routledge. Davidson, C., Given, L. M., Danby, S., Thorpe, K. (2014). Talk about a YouTube video in preschool: The mutual production of shared understanding for learning with digital technology. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 39(3), 76. Fitzgerald, M., Kruschwitz, N., Bonnet, D., Welch, M. (2014). Embracing digital technology: A new strategic imperative. MIT sloan management review, 55(2), 1. Flewitt, R., Messer, D., Kucirkova, N. (2014). New directions for early literacy in a digital age: The iPad. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 1468798414533560. Flood, J., Heath, S. B., Lapp, D. (2015). Handbook of Research on Teaching Literacy Through the Communicative and Visual Arts, Volume II: A Project of the International Reading Association. Routledge. Gillen, J., Hall, N. (2013). The emergence of early childhood literacy. Handbook of Early Childhood Literacy, ed. Nigel Hall, Joanne Larson, andjackie Marsh (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003), 1-12. Hrd, M., Jamison, A. (2013). Hubris and hybrids: a cultural history of technology and science. Routledge. Marsh, J., Hannon, P., Lewis, M., Ritchie, L. (2015). Young childrens initiation into family literacy practices in the digital age. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 1476718X15582095. Tyner, K. (2014). Literacy in a digital world: Teaching and learning in the age of information. Routledge.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Museum Project free essay sample

The land increases (Gall). When you first enter the hall this is the quotation written on the ceiling and it can be viewed and interpreted in many ways. One is born and dies in the same land or one IS born and there is no hope or opportunity. The implication that one is born signifies birth and the welcoming of one into the world. When one is born they are added to the world and population is increased. When one dies it implies that life is over and one is taken off the earth and removed permanently. The fact that they are written right after each other can homology a balance or dualism because with life comes death, they go hand in hand and there is a balance. As one is born there is no loss or gain because one dies. Despite the fact that a life can be changed by life or death the land will always continue to increase and grow because before us land was here. We will write a custom essay sample on Museum Project or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This quote can also be understood to explain the slave trade. The Africans were not respected nor cherished only the land was. People were born, people died, but nothing was affected because only the European land was valued.The land increased as they were born because they were shipped off as slaves and if they died they were easily replenished. If you were born as a slave you died as one, there was no hope because you belonged to someone else. 2 I chose to observe the African peoples hall in the Museum of Natural history. Knowledge is infinite so although it is my culture I can always learn new information. I am fascinated with my culture because although we were suppressed we still overcame. It is amazing to know that we were once not even included in the Constitution or allowed to vote and now we have BarrackObama who is of African descent running for president. I used this museum trip not only as a means for getting information for this report but as a way to connect the past with the present. The museum was very successful at displaying the culture positively. Everything seemed chronological and there was a vast selection of artifacts. The timeline ranges from Ancient Africa which began nearly four million years ago to present day Africa. The geographical areas varied from river regions, woodlands, grasslands, deserts, and tropical rainforests.Their advances in tool making showed that they were creative and strategic in ways of ensuring survival. The museum also displays the political, religious and economic aspects of African life. The Africans had sacred states which were militaristic and built of smaller kingdoms seeking common defense. They also believed in a concept called opportunities without hostility. This concept originated in the East African grasslands which is home to many different people who held separate views but still coexisted without violence.As a dancer I found the Dance and Belief exhibit to be the most intriguing. African people used dancing not only as a recreational activity but to celebrate marriage, childbirth or as a way to mourn the dead. The elaborate ceremonial dance costumes were what caught my attention. Some of the costumes appeared to be made from many 3 different materials such as shells, beads, hair, sticks, and straws. The spirit world exhibit stood out to me as well simply because it looked interesting. The way the display was set up made you curious enough to wonder what it was about. The spirit world is said to explain the living world ND if you were good you were ensured an afterlife. In this afterlife you would have powers much more powerful than mans. Figurines and masks were used as a way to worship the ancestral spirits. The spirits of animals were said to convey the most power. The early humans exhibit was interesting solely because it explained the origin of my culture. It touched upon the first forms of art made with rocks and stones. It also displayed the tools used for hunting, gathering, cultivation, and herding but despite these positive aspects I found it quite boring. The mom itself made me sleepy because of the color and as I was taking notes I could not help but Want to leave. I was surprised at the fact that there were only two people including myself of African descent viewing the exhibit. I was proud that the hall was so beautifully designed and everything was well organized. It made me happy to see that people of several ethnicities were excited and intrigued by the different aspects of African culture. The hall was busy and people were drawing sketches, taking photos, and simply just enjoying the artifacts on display.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

King Henry I of Germany - Henry the Fowler - Duke of Saxony

King Henry I of Germany - Henry the Fowler - Duke of Saxony Henry I of Germany was also known as: Henry the Fowler; in German, Henrik or Heinrich der Vogler Henry I of Germany was known for: Founding the Saxon dynasty of kings and emperors in Germany. Although he never took the title Emperor (his son Otto was the first to revive the title centuries after the Carolingians), future emperors would reckon the numbering of Henrys from his reign. How he got his nickname is uncertain; one story has it that he was called fowler because he was setting bird snares when informed of his election as king, but that is probably a myth. Occupations: KingMilitary Leader Places of Residence and Influence: Europe: Germany Important Dates: Born: c. 876Becomes Duke of Saxony: 912Designated heir to Conrad I of Franconia: 918Elected king by the nobles of Saxony and Franconia: 919Defeats Magyars at Riade: March 15, 933Died: July 2, 936 About Henry I of Germany (Henry the Fowler): Henry was the son of Otto the Illustrious. He married Hatheburg, daughter of the count of Merseburg, but the marriage was declared invalid because, after her first husbands death, Hatheburg had become a nun. In 909 he wed Matilda, daughter of the count of Westphalia. When his father died in 912, Henry became Duke of Saxony. Six years later, Conrad I of Franconia designated Henry as his heir shortly before he died. Henry now controlled two of the four most significant duchies in Germany, the nobles of which elected him king of Germany in May of 919. However, the other two important duchies, Bavaria and Swabia, did not recognize him as their king. Henry had respect for the autonomy of the various duchies of Germany, but he also wanted them to unite in a confederation. He managed to force Burchard, the duke of Swabia, to submit to him in 919, but he allowed Burchard to retain administrative control over his duchy. In that same year, Bavarian and East Frankish nobles elected Arnulf, duke of Bavaria, as king of Germany, and Henry met the challenge with two military campaigns, forcing Arnulf to submit in 921. Though Arnulf gave up his claim to the throne, he retained control of his duchy of Bavaria. Four years later Henry defeated Giselbert, king of Lotharingia, and brought the region back under German control. Giselbert was allowed to remain in charge of Lotharingia as duke, and in 928 he married Henrys daughter, Gerberga. In 924 the barbarian Magyar tribe invaded Germany. Henry agreed to pay them tribute and to return a hostage chief in exchange for a nine-year halt to raids on German lands. Henry used the time well; he built fortified towns, trained mounted warriors into a formidable army, and led them in some solid victories against various Slavic tribes. When the nine-year truce ended, Henry refused to pay more tribute, and the Magyars resumed their raids. But Henry crushed them at Riade in March of 933, putting an end to the Magyar threat to the Germans. Henrys last campaign was an invasion of Denmark through which the territory of Schleswig became part of Germany. The son he had with Matilda, Otto, would succeed him as king and become Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great. More Henry the Fowler Resources: Henry the Fowler on the Web Henry IConcise bio at Infoplease.Henry the FowlerExcerpt from Famous Men of the Middle Ages by John H. Haaren Henry the Fowler in Print Germany in the Early Middle Ages, 800-1056by Timothy Reuterby Benjamin Arnold Medieval Germany Chronological Index Geographical Index Index by Profession, Achievement, or Role in Society The text of this document is copyright  ©2003-2016 Melissa Snell. You may download or print this document for personal or school use, as long as the URL below is included. Permission is   not  granted to reproduce this document on another website. For publication permission,  please   contact  Melissa Snell. The URL for this document is:http://historymedren.about.com/d/hwho/p/Henry-I-Germany.htm

Saturday, November 23, 2019

How to Create Behavior Contracts for Students

How to Create Behavior Contracts for Students Every teacher has at least one challenging student in her class, a child who needs extra structure and incentive to change bad behavior habits. These arent bad kids; they often just need a little extra support, structure, and discipline. Behavior contracts can help you mold the behavior of these students so that they no longer disrupt learning in your classroom. What Is a Behavior Contract? A behavior contract is an agreement between the teacher, student, and the students parents that sets limits for student behavior, rewards good choices, and outlines consequences for bad choices. This type of program sends a clear message to the child by communicating with them that their disruptive behavior cannot continue. It lets them know your expectations and what the consequences of their actions, both good and bad, will be.   Step 1, Customize the Contract First, make a plan for change. Use this behavior contract form as a guide for the meeting you will soon have with the student and his/her parents. Tailor the form to your particular situation, taking into consideration the personality and preferences of the child you are helping. Step 2, Set Up A Meeting Next, hold a meeting with the involved parties. Perhaps your school has an assistant principal in charge of discipline; if so, invite this person to the meeting. The student and his/her parents should attend as well. Focus on 1 to 2 particular behaviors that you would like to see change. Dont try to change everything at once. Take baby steps toward major improvement and set goals that the student will perceive as achievable. Make it clear that you care about this child and want to see him/her improve in school this year. Emphasize that the parent, student, and teacher are all part of the same team.   Step 3, Communicate the Consequences Define the tracking method to be used on a daily basis for monitoring student behavior. Describe the rewards and consequences that correlate with behavior choices. Be very specific and clear in this area and use quantitative explanations whenever possible. Involve the parents in designing a system of rewards and consequences. Make sure that the chosen consequences are truly important to this particular child; you can even ask the child for input which will make him/her buy into the process even further. Have all involved parties sign the agreement and end the meeting on a positive note. Step 4, Schedule a Follow-Up Meeting Schedule a follow-up meeting 2 to 6 weeks from your initial meeting to discuss progress and make adjustments to the plan as needed. Let the child know that the group will be meeting again soon to discuss their progress. Step 5, Be Consistent in the Classroom In the meantime, be very consistent with this child in the classroom. Stick to the wording of the behavior contract agreement as much as you can. When the child makes good behavior choices, offer praise. When the child makes poor choices, do not be apologetic; if needed, pull out the contract and review the terms that the child agreed upon. Emphasize the positive consequences that can come as a result of good behavior and enforce any negative consequences of the childs bad behavior that you agreed upon in the contract.   Step 6, Be Patient and Trust the Plan Most of all, be patient. Do not give up on this child. Misbehaved children often need extra love and positive attention and your investment in their well-being can go a long way.   In Conclusion You might be surprised at the huge feeling of relief that all involved parties feel just by having an agreed-upon plan. Use your teachers intuition to start yourself on a more peaceful and productive path with this child.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Q5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Q5 - Essay Example Poorly planned information systems also increase the costs of operation or else the customer requirements may not been met. This leads to dissatisfaction among clients and hence the organization can not maintain competitiveness in the market. Moreover, poor planning also leads to the existence of information systems in the organization that are not in use, not because they are spoiled but because the organization does not need them (Benaroch, 2002). Poor planning leads to failure especially when the organization does not have effective mechanisms for maintenance and supporting the information systems. Without the appropriate plans, the organization might not be capable of maintaining adequate support for consistent working with the system. It might result in to losses and misunderstanding among the MIS staff and the general organizational managers since blameworthiness is usually placed on those involved in the application of information systems rather than the planners. For example, the employees in charge of the control room are blamed for the poor performance of the information systems especially since they interact directly with the clients whose dissatisfaction is often attributed to incompetence among these staff. Such blames are mistaken and are all as a result of poor planning (Tipon et. Al 2001) The choice of the source of decision support systems in an organization is significant to their effectiveness in enhancing organizational performance. The pros of purchasing the DSS from vendors are many. First, the cost of purchasing the DSS is far much lower than in-house development especially due to the fact that the organization does not have to employ experts to develop the systems. The costs that could otherwise be incurred in the organization for developing the systems can be used for other purposes in the organization. On the other hand, outsourcing presents the organization with a wide range of DSS developers applying various technologies, which

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Critical issue of global health Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Critical issue of global health - Assignment Example The data struck me, based on rationale, because health has emerged to be a global issue and global efforts, that may include transfer of resources to deserving areas could be necessary. This would suggest distribution of resources to such areas as Africa and asia in order to help combat health care problems. on the contrary, a barrier seems to exist and developed countries seems to be solving their healthcare concerns and not extending resources to developing countries (World Health Organization, 2006). Variation in burden of disease across nations and regions also supports the difference in need and resource allocation and identifies lack of global efforts in healthcare, despite the suggested need (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, 2014). Such a variation identifies regional and national efforts and shortages, not global, and yet some data identifies these factors to be global. O’Brien and Gostin (2011) explains that shortage in healthcare workers is a global crisis, undermining the reported regional imbalance in the primary data. The inconsistency makes the data striking because of either possible dynamism in the sector that could have occurred between times of the articles’ publication or unreliability of existing data on healthcare issues. the inconsistency therefore establishes need for a new study on the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Theoretical approach Essay Example for Free

Theoretical approach Essay The use of a theoretical approach to explain a phenomenon in the society is not uncommon. For this term paper the writer is required to use five theories to answer five moral questions given. One the theory is distributive justice. This theory has to do with justice in the allocation of goods in the society. It aims at reducing inequalities that occur unintentionally and it is guided by several factors. The amount of goods to be distributed, how they will be used and how they will be divided which in essence means it deals with ensuring the outcomes and the consequences of the allocation of goods in society are just. The other theory that will be applied in this term paper is the moral rights theory which entails the rights held by developers of copyrighted materials, the right to publish a book with a pseudonym among other rights. These rights are not anchored solely on law or people’s customs or beliefs they are just natural rights. The virtue of ethics is an approach that focuses on a moral agent’s character but not so much on the rules or the consequences. An action is thereby right or wrong due to what a character does not because of the consequences of their actions. Using this theory an individual will be able to discern whether the definition of what is considered ‘green’ should be standardized. The other theories that will be used to look at the Moral Issue Questions in depth are the utilitarianism and the ethics of care theories. Utilitarian approach advocates for the action that brings the most pleasure to the people. The outcome of an action therefore becomes very important since the results are measured by looking at the levels of satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the general public. The ethics of care theory on the other hand is an approach that looks at action being either right or wrong. This theory advocates for the interests of the people who are vulnerable to warrant special consideration and these people should be protected form harm. These five approaches will be used to look at the moral issues that the scenarios presented pose and the best answer to the MIQ based on those theories. Distributive Justice MIQ. Who should regulate corporate compensation? Defining excessive pay Investment advisors have been known to overcharge their clients for the services rendered. In this case Oakmark family of mutual funds are alleging that the manager of funds from Harris Associates charged the family double the amounts charged for the same services extended to other clients thereby violating their fiduciary duty (Barnes Mufson 2009). The family wants the court to determine if they have a legal claim and how much Harris associates should pay as compensation. The case creates many dilemmas and has myriad consequencies not just on the U. S. Supreme court but also on the political arena as well. The mutual funds field being as competitive as it is the Harris Associates feel mutual funds investors are free to scout the market and get the best advisor for their needs. Also, the fact that they managed to grow the Oaks Family account as extensive as they did means they have done their job. Despite the Harris Associate defending their actions, the Founder of Vanguard Group and a very influential figure in the mutual funds industry feels that what Harris Associates did was a direct violation of the fiduciary duty and the courts should enforce this duty on investment advisors (Barnes Mufson 2009). According to distributive justice theory the courts should regulate the corporate compensation. Leaving the decision to the investment advisors will propagate the injustices even further. Harris Associates were not just in charging the Oak Family double the amount charged other companies for the same or even lesser services rendered. Therefore the court should ensure that the Oak’s get justice and are fully compensated. This is because as the mutual funds industry grows most investment advisors are aligning their loyalties to suit themselves and the government should step in and protect the rights of the investors. Moral Rights MIQ. Should the government penalize Bank of America for accepting bail out money only to pay it back ahead of schedule in order to attract CEO with lucrative pay and benefits? The Federal Government gives corporations bailouts with several conditions which are basically to do with the control and effective running of the a bailout beneficiary. The Bank of America after benefiting from the government bailout is finding it challenging running its operations with the interference of the government. Therefore it has decided to repay the taxpayer aid extended by the government during the financial crisis before the payment periods is over to free itself of any direct government interference. Being free of government debt the company will then be in a position to attract a Chief Executive Officer after the current chief retires since as things stand now most are shying away from working in the corporation due to the present government interference (Appelbaum 2009). According to Appelbaum (2009) the government will not accept the repayment until the Bank can ascertain it is in sound economic health and has stabilized. The bailout was due to a poor expansion decision made by the then Chief Executive. The much needed bailout came but left the bank under the mercy of the government. This government involvement has really affected the search for a new Chief since it has increased the scrutiny of the banks activities and now all the decisions the bank officials make have to be analyzed by the federal government. The government’s intentions bailing out the bank were noble as it was safeguarding one of the countries big economic players and it had to make sure that the bank did not sink to the quagmire again in future. By virtue of the bailout the government therefore owns the corporation since it saved it from a total collapse. According to Moral rights theory the government has to scrutinize all the decisions made in the past and in the present as it has a right by virtue of the money loaned. The government is not penalizing the bank for accepting the bailout money it is just ensuring the situation never happens again. A corporations chief should be versatile enough to work under all conditions and therefore by shying away from a lucrative position because ones activities will be scrutinized by a rightful owner according to the moral rights theorists is not right. The government as a developer has a natural right over the bank and all its undertakings. Therefore the government is justified according to this theory to penalize the bank. Utilitarianism MIQ. Should future space programs be privatized? Private Enterprises Ticket to Fly Into Space According Achenbach (2009) there is the possibility that a time is coming whereby going to the moon or to outer space will be as easy as flying to another destination is today. This is because the notion of privatizing spaceflight is looking more and lucrative each day. The American government is finding it challenging factoring in all the activities of NASA in the budget. A committee was formed by President Obama led by a retired aerospace executive Norman Augustine to evaluate and advise the president on the best course of action to take about NASA. This is because the government is feeling the strain and even according to the Committee there is not enough money for NASA’s 2020 planned trip to the moon. The budget for future spaceflights has been reduced. The committee recommended changes in strategies employed by NASA and proposed NASA looks into or explores other cheaper exploration opportunities. The biggest dilemma has to do with the Ares 1 rocket whose maintenance cost has been very high and the committee has proposed a cancellation should be considered. This creates other complications like individuals loosing their livelihoods and some other security implications. The only way to deal with scraping off the Ares 1 is considering commercial spaceflight (Achenbach 2009). This means charging those that want to experience a trip to space. This way doors would be open to include private players in the industry. Some people are of the opinion that canceling the trip to the moon in 2020 will derail the plans to go Mars and the government should instead look into other recommendations (Achenbach 2009). The utilitarianism approach advocates for the decision that fosters the most pleasurable result for the majority. There are many alternatives to be looked at in this situation with NASA and all the alternatives have their pros and cons. Through the utilitarianism approach the spaceflight should be privatized. This will open up doors to all those interested companies to invest in this industry. This will encourage creativity and give a chance to the interested members of public a chance to visit space. Privatizing the spaceflights will ease the financial burden on the government which presently finances all NASA’s activities. This money could be put to other urgent needs. The private players will be happy as they can now make money independent of the government by flying astronauts to space commercially. Virtue ethics MIQ. Should there be strict guidelines and definitions on what is considered green meats and fish used in restaurants Most people are becoming very health and environmentally conscious and will only consume those products that are perceived to be inline with their ideals. In order to keep up with this trend entrepreneurs are also sourcing for raw materials from producers who use environmentally friendly methods to grow or rear their produce. This health and environmental platform is what Founding Farmers Restaurant anchored its business on. On its menu it had advertised for ‘green cuisines’ as its specialty (Black 2009). On close scrutiny as the business continued to thrive the restaurant started to deviate from its mission statement and selling products produced in environmentally degrading situations but claiming on the menu it was committed serving ‘green’ food. With growth it became very difficult to source for produce from small family farms and still turn a profit. This is because these farmers sell their products at higher prices than large scale producers as they do not benefit from economies of scale. Also, their supplies are not reliable and sometimes their produce is affected by the seasonal production. The management of Founding Farmers defended their decision to source for its produce form large scale producers by maintaining that in other areas the restaurant was fully ‘green’ (Black 2009). The lack of clear definition on what qualifies as ‘green’ or in other words sustainable foods leaves a lot of grey areas in which some of these entrepreneurs can get away with not offering the customer exactly what they need. Some restaurants like Equinox have managed to run their business by fully supporting family farms which is expensive on their part but they are committed to the course. Founding Fathers on the other hand try as much as possible and the effort is appreciated by many but they have overtime misled customers with their menu about the authenticity of their products. This is because they do not get all their meat from family farms neither are their vegetables from the family farms but they vouch for the quality by alluding that the end justifies the means (Black 2009). According to the virtue ethics theory regardless of the outcomes being good they unfortunately have no basis in establishing whether an action was right or wrong. Therefore what the Founding Farmers are doing remains morally wrong whether the food served in the restaurant is healthy or not. The actions of the managers of the business source for the produce from farms whose practices are in question but the restaurant sells its products buy claiming it got its produce from small scale family farms. Even if their servings are healthy they are not entirely ‘green’. Therefore there should be strict guidelines and definitions on what is considered ‘green’ meats and fish served in restaurants as Founding Farmers has been misleading the public. Ethics of care MIQ. Should the government allow for NBC and Comcast merge? A new kind of company, a new challenge for feds Access to information is very important therefore a situation where this access to information can be controlled by a single company poses a security risk to the country and to the public (Kang 2009). The discussions of a possible merger between Comcast and NBC has definitely caught people’s attention since Comcast is among the largest companies dealing with the provision of internet services whereas NBC is one of the largest television network. This means merging the internet with television thus the information that people have access to online and through the cable is the same. Presently there is information that is accessible through the television only and not available online. For instance in a situation whereby the internet providers feel that the information is too controversial and would affect them negatively thus they do not post it online but the same is revealed through cable. If the two are merged the general public would have access to the same information and this reduces the idea of watchdogs. Therefore as the two would be one it means looking out for each other thus movies produced by NBC would be available online as well without being. In essence the situation poses a very high security risk to the people and there is the possibility of serious exploitation of the general public (Kang 2009). The ethics of care approach advocates for the rights of vulnerable groups to be looked out for as they have no way doing it themselves. The government should not therefore allow NBC and Comcast to merge since this would mean limiting the information the people have on important issues. Reference List Achenbach, J. , (2009). Panel May Urge Strapped NASA To Outsource Commercial Flights. Washington Post; Sep, 5th 2009. Appelbaum, B. , (2009). Bank of America to repay U. S. : Firm will be first to reimburse taxpayers completely for bailout. Washington Post; Dec, 3rd 2009. Barnes, R. Mufson, S. , (2009). Defining excessive pay: Investor case may hint at high court approach to compensation. Washington Post; Nov, 1st 2009. Black, J. , (2009). Green cuisine not always as ordered: Founding Farmers still strives for goal of sustainable food. Washington Post; Dec 7th, 2009. Kang, C. , (2009). A new kind of company, a new challenge for feds. Washington Post; 27th, 2009.